By Edmund T. Whittaker
In 1910 I released a piece below the name A heritage of the Theories of Aether and electrical energy, from the age of Descartes to the shut of the 19th century. whilst the unique version used to be exhausted, I felt that any new factor should still describe the origins of relativity and quantum-theory, and their improvement seeing that 1900. My possibilities have been besides the fact that now not enough to permit me to organize a correct and fully-documented account of this very inventive interval, and that i was once forced to put the plan apart. Retirement from my professorial chair has made it attainable for me to take in this venture back ; it is going to occupy volumes, of which this, the 1st, offers with the classical theories. the quantity of 1910 has been to a substantial quantity rewritten, with the incorporation of a lot extra fabric ; and within the moment quantity, the tale might be persisted to the current time.
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Extra info for A history of theories of ether and electricity. The classical theories
But, even here, the localism has a certain universalistic quality about it insofar as it refers more genetically to bodies than to particular persons with proper names. Moreover, comparing our studies of the scholarly medical traditions with current social science studies of knowledge makes clear that our double-axis scheme for ways of knowing must make room for a third. Not only is there gnosticism vs. epistemicism; not only is there localism vs. universalism; there is also a polarity between scholarly commitments to ways of knowing and actual practices.
Lloyd chance to bear to defend the doctor against unfair accusations of failures for which he should not be held responsible. As in some other Hippocratic works, the view that medicine is not an exact branch of knowledge has both a negative and a positive side: it should not be blamed for failure in exactness, but it is s. branch of knowledge nevertheless. On Affections is another treatise that refers to what may happen by chance. In chapter 45 the writer concedes that some remedies are discovered by chance and that lay people might stumble on them just as much as doctors.
See also my Magic, Reason and Experience (Cambridge, 1979), ch. 1. D. Smith, 'Galen on Coans versus Cnidians', Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 47 (1973), 569-85. See also I. M. Lonie, 'Cos versus Cnidus and the Historians', History of Science, 16 (1978), 42-75 and 77-92. R. Lloyd At least 'school' is potentially a highly misleading term to use in either the educational or the dogmatic sense. The medical education on offer in any Greek city-state was a matter of what individual practitioners provided for those apprenticed to them.