A New Foundation of Physical Theories by Günther Ludwig

By Günther Ludwig

Written within the culture of G. Ludwig’s groundbreaking works, this e-book goals to elucidate and formulate extra exactly the basic rules of actual theories. via introducing a uncomplicated descriptive language of straightforward shape, within which it's attainable to formulate recorded proof, ambiguities of actual theories are refrained from up to attainable. during this procedure the sphere of physics that are supposed to be defined via a concept depends upon uncomplicated recommendations simply, i.e. innovations that may be defined and not using a thought. during this context the authors introduce a brand new proposal of idealization and assessment the method of gaining knowledge of new strategies. they think that, while the theories are formulated inside an axiomatic foundation, suggestions are available to many tricky difficulties comparable to the translation of actual theories, the kinfolk among theories in addition to the creation of actual strategies. The publication addresses either physicists and philosophers of technology and may motivate the reader to give a contribution to the knowledge of the lasting center of actual wisdom concerning the actual constructions of the area.

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We will not describe what we allow as having directly demonstrable meaning. Physics is essentially determined by the domain which we admit as having directly demonstrable meaning. For example, we do not allow a direct meaning to words such as ‘weak’, ‘blue’, or ‘weak sound’. But in physics there are many words the meanings of which is given by pre-theories (see sect. 3). For example, the meaning of the word ‘distance’ is given by a pre-theory. The words used in a basic language must be words the meanings of which are given without the intended theory.

Conceptual level “between a1 , a2 , α, there is the distance relation δ(a1 , a2 , α)” ... ... . . ... .. . ... ... . .. ... ... . ... ........ ....... reference - a, b, α - ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ............. representation - between a1 , a2 , α, there is the distance relation δ(a1 , a2 , α) - Reality level Fig. 2. Semantic relations of reference and representation An adequate representation of a whole domain of facts requires a system of concepts and propositions.

The problems of the use of the set theory in the representation M T of a P T can only be dealt with later; for this reason, almost no indication on the physical meaning will be given here for the moment. In the set theory there appears as a new relational sign: “z ∈ y” (concretely, “z is an element of y”). , for the relation “all the elements z of x are also elements of y,” we briefly write “x ⊂ y” (concretely, “x is part of y;” or “y contains x” or similar expressions). ” The relational sign ∈ will become of decisive importance for the use of an M T in a P T .

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