A Platonic Pythagoras. Platonism and Pythagoreanism in the by Mauro Bonazzi, Carlos Levy, Carlos Steel

By Mauro Bonazzi, Carlos Levy, Carlos Steel

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The different bond types will be described in the following sections but first we are going to look at the intermolecular forces that interact between the molecules and not inside molecules. 2 Intermolecular forces It is very important not to confuse the two terms intramolecular forces and intermolecular forces. Intramolecular forces are forces that act inside molecules and thus constitute the bonds between atoms. Intermolecular forces, on the other hand, are forces that act outside the molecules between molecules.

Therefore London forces are larger between larger molecules. Till now in this chapter we have very briefly been looking at the different types of bonds that can exist between two atoms (intramolecular forces) and at the different types of forces that can act between molecules (intermolecular forces). In the following sections we are going to look more detailed into the different types of chemical bonds. That way we will be able to explain why it is beneficial for some atoms to join in a chemical bond and why this is not the case for other atoms.

The 1st ionization energy is the amount of energy required to remove one single electron away from the atom. When one electron is removed, the atom becomes a positively charged ion (a cation). 6 kilo joules are required to ionize 1 mole of tin and boron atoms, respectively. Electrons are easier to remove when they are further away from the nucleus, so the ionization energy decreases. Furthermore the electrons closer to the nucleus constitute a kind of shielding or screening for the outer electrons.

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