By Peter Gottschalk
In the midst of the 19th century a bunch of political activists in big apple urban joined jointly to problem a non secular team they believed have been antagonistic to the yankee values of liberty and freedom. referred to as the recognize Nothings, they began riots in the course of elections, tarred and feathered their political enemies, and barred males from employment according to their faith. the gang that brought on this uproar?: Irish and German Catholics―then referred to as the main villainous spiritual crew in the US, and extensively believed to be unswerving simply to the Pope. it will take one other hundred years sooner than Catholics threw off those xenophobic accusations and joined the yankee mainstream. the concept the USA is a stronghold of spiritual freedom is significant to our identification as a nation―and completely at odds with the old checklist. In American Heretics, historian Peter Gottschalk strains the arc of yank spiritual discrimination and indicates that, faraway from the dominant protestant religions being stored in payment through the separation among church and nation, non secular teams from Quakers to Judaism were subjected to related styles of persecution. at the present time, a lot of those comparable spiritual teams that have been as soon as considered as anti-thetical to American values are embraced as proof of our powerful non secular heritage―giving desire to today's Muslims, Sikhs, and different non secular teams now lower than hearth.
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Additional info for American Heretics: Catholics, Jews, Muslims, and the History of Religious Intolerance
Image source: Art Resource, NY. A member of the Mixtec people, who lived within the Aztec empire, made this necklace for an Aztec aristocrat. Mixtec and Aztec peoples associated frogs with rain and fertility, which were important factors for survival in civilizations with large cities and complex societies that depended on stable crop yields of maize and other products. Practicing Historical Thinking What does it mean to read closely? Three questions accompany each document in this textbook. They ask you to examine the text—either written or visual—a second or third time to develop your critical reading and thinking skills.
In this letter, Afonso writes to the king of Portugal, John III, on the growth of the slave trade in Kongo. . Sir, in our Kingdoms there is another great inconvenience which is of little service to God, and this is that many of our people, keenly desirous as they are of the wares and things of your Kingdoms, which are brought here by your people, and in order to satisfy their voracious appetite, seize many of our people, freed and exempt men, and very often it happens that they kidnap even noblemen and the sons of noblemen, and our relatives, and take them to be sold to the white men who are in our Kingdoms; and for this purpose they have concealed them; and others are brought during the night so that they might not be recognized.
Historians must do more than just identify details. They must offer some analysis of the item within the context of the time and place in which it originated, as in this next question: Analyze: If frogs represented fertility for the Aztecs, why might a high-status Aztec want to wear these symbolic objects? Finally, a historian must consider the meaning of the object or document and assess its historical significance. In this process, called evaluation, the reader makes an informed judgment about the text.