By Koen Lampaert
Analog built-in circuits are extremely important as interfaces among the electronic components of built-in digital structures and the surface international. a wide component of the hassle all for designing those circuits is spent within the format section. while the actual layout of electronic circuits is automatic to a wide quantity, the format of analog circuits remains to be a handbook, time-consuming and error-prone activity. this is often customarily as a result of non-stop nature of analog signs, which explanations analog circuit functionality to be very delicate to structure parasitics. The parasitic components linked to interconnect wires reason loading and coupling results that degrade the frequency behaviour and the noise functionality of analog circuits. machine mismatch and thermal results placed a basic restrict at the feasible accuracy of circuits. For winning automation of analog structure, complex position and direction instruments that may deal with those serious parasitics are required.
long ago, automated analog structure instruments attempted to optimize the structure with no quantifying the functionality degradation brought via format parasitics. for that reason, it used to be no longer assured that the ensuing format met the necessities and a number of structure iterations may be wanted. In Analog structure iteration for functionality andManufacturability, the authors suggest a functionality pushed structure technique to conquer this challenge. during this method, the structure instruments are pushed by means of functionality constraints, such that the ultimate structure, with parasitic results, nonetheless satisfies the requisites of the circuit. The functionality degradation linked to an intermediate format resolution is evaluated at runtime utilizing predetermined sensitivities. against this with different functionality pushed structure methodologies, the instruments proposed during this ebook function at once at the functionality constraints, with no an intermediate parasitic constraint iteration step. This technique makes an entire and brilliant trade-off among the various format choices attainable at runtime and consequently gets rid of the potential suggestions course among constraint derivation, placement and format extraction.
in addition to its effect at the functionality, format additionally has a profound effect at the yield and testability of an analog circuit. In AnalogLayout iteration for functionality and Manufacturability, the authors define a brand new criterion to quantify the detectability of a fault and mix this with a yield version to judge the testability of an built-in circuit format. They then combine this system with their functionality pushed routing set of rules to supply layouts that experience optimum manufacturability whereas nonetheless assembly their functionality necessities.
Analog structure iteration for functionality and Manufacturability may be of curiosity to analog engineers, researchers and students.
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Extra info for Analog Layout Generation for Performance and Manufacturability
Geometrical Methods Geometrical methods extract interconnect capacitances directly from the layout geometry using parameterized models for commonly encountered interconnect configurations that are stored in a database. Geometrical methods are fast and reasonably accurate, and therefore, they are good candidates for use in a performance driven layout tool. In our layout tool, we use geometrical methods to compute parasitic interconnect during placement and routing. During placement, calculations must be made based on estimates of the wire topology.
The value obtained after electrical design of the circuit (see Fig. 2(b». The actual, measured value of P will differ from its nominal value because of two effects: process variations and layout parasitics. The effect of process variations has to be considered during statistical design, and layout parasitics have to be controlled during layout design. 2. Yield Estimation (Statistical Design) Due to random variations in the values of the design and process parameters, the actual value of P will deviate from its nominal value.
For an interconnection piece of length D, at a given frequency w, exact T and n equivalent circuits can be found. These circuits are shown in Fig. 6. In this figure, D is the length of the interconnection segment, Zo the characteristic impedance and y ex + jf3 the propagation function. 26) where Ro, L o, Go and Co are the resistance, inductance, conductance and capacitance per unit length, respectively. e. Iy DI 1 , the following simplified expressions can be derived for the impedance values of Fig.